英语五种基本句型结构

英语史瑞8080 发布于 2015/04/09 11:02
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英语中的五种基本句型结构
一、句型1: Subject (主语) + Verb (谓语) 
这种句型中的动词大多是不及物动词,所谓不及物动词,就是这种动词后不可以直接接宾语。常见的动词如:work, sing, swim, fish, jump, arrive, come, die, disappear, cry, happen等。如:
1) Li Ming works very hard.李明学习很努力。
2) The accident happened yesterday afternoon.事故是昨天下午发生的。
3)Spring is coming.
4) We have lived in the city for ten years.
二、句型2:Subject (主语) + Link. V(系动词) + Predicate(表语)
这种句型主要用来表示主语的特点、身份等。其系动词一般可分为下列两类:
(1)表示状态。这样的词有:be, look, seem, smell, taste, sound, keep等。如:
1) This kind of food tastes delicious.这种食物吃起来很可口。
2) He looked worried just now.刚才他看上去有些焦急。
(2)表示变化。这类系动词有:become, turn, get, grow, go等。如:
1) Spring comes. It is getting warmer and warmer.春天到了,天气变得越来越暖和。
2) The tree has grown much taller than before.这棵树比以前长得高多了。
三、句型3:Subject(主语) + Verb (谓语) + Object (宾语)
这种句型中的动词一般为及物动词, 所谓及物动词,就是这种动词后可以直接接宾语,其宾语通常由名词、代词、动词不定式、动名词或从句等来充当。例:
1) He took his bag and left.(名词) 他拿着书包离开了。
2) Li Lei always helps me when I have difficulties. (代词)当我遇到困难时,李雷总能给我帮助。
3) She plans to travel in the coming May Day.(不定式)她打算在即将到来的“五一”外出旅游。
4) I don’t know what I should do next. (从句)我不知道下一步该干什么。
注意:英语中的许多动词既是及物动词,又是不及物动词。
四、句型4: Subject(主语)+Verb(谓语)+ Indirect object(间接宾语)+Direct object (直接宾语)
这种句型中,直接宾语为主要宾语,表示动作是对谁做的或为谁做的,在句中不可或缺,常常由表示“物”的名词来充当;间接宾语也被称之为第二宾语,去掉之后,对整个句子的影响不大,多由指“人”的名词或代词承担。引导这类双宾语的常见动词有:buy, pass, lend, give, tell, teach, show, bring, send等。如:
1) Her father bought her a dictionary as a birthday present.她爸爸给她买了一本词典作为生日礼物。
2)The old man always tells the children stories about the heroes in the Long March.
老人经常给孩子们讲述长征途中那些英雄的故事。 上述句子还可以表达为:
1)Her father bought a dictionary for her as a birthday present.
2)The old man always tells stories about the heroes to the children in the Long March.
五、句型5: Subject(主语)+Verb (动词)+Object (宾语)+Complement(补语)
这种句型中的“宾语 + 补语”统称为“复合宾语”。宾语补足语的主要作用或者是补充、说明宾语的特点、身份等;或者表示让宾语去完成的动作等。担任补语的常常是名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、动词不定式等。如:
1)You should keep the room clean and tidy. 你应该让屋子保持干净整洁。(形容词)
2) We made him our monitor.(名词)我们选他当班长。
3) His father told him not to play in the street.(不定式)他父亲告诉他不要在街上玩。
4)My father likes to watch the boys playing basketball.(现在分词)
5) Yesterday I had a picture taken with two Americans.(过去分词)
● 常见的动词有: tell, ask, advise, help, want, would like, order, force, allow等。
● 注意:动词have, make, let, see, hear, notice, feel, watch等后面所接的动词不定式作宾补时,不带to。如:
1) The boss made him do the work all day.老板让他整天做那项工作。
2) I heard her sing in the next room all the time last night.昨天晚上我听见她在隔壁唱了一个晚上。

独立主格结构
一) 独立主格结构的构成: 
名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词;
名词(代词)+形容词;
名词(代词)+副词;
名词(代词)+不定式;
名词(代词) +介词短语构成。 

二) 独立主格结构的特点:
  1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。
  2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定 式,介词等是主谓关系。
  3)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。
举例:
  The test finished, we began our holiday.
 = When the test was finished, we began our holiday.
  考试结束了,我们开始放假。
  The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
 = After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
  总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。
  Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow. 
  如果天气允许,我们明天去看你。
This done, we went home.   
  工作完成后,我们才回家。
  The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier. 
  会议结束后,每个人都想早点回家。
  He came into the room, his ears red with cold.
他回到了房子里,耳朵冻坏了。
  He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.
 他夹着本厚书,走出了图书馆。

三) With的复合结构作独立主格
表伴随时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用with的复合结构。 
  with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语 
举例: He stood there, his hand raised.
  = He stood there, with his hand raise. 
典型例题
  The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。
A. being tied  B. having tied  C. to be tied  D. tied  
  答案D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用with来引导。由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选D.  
注意: 
1) 独立主格结构使用介词的问题: 
  当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制
  A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. 
  ( hand前不能加his)。      
2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分 词,不及物动词用过去分词。
  He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up. 
典型例题:
 Weather___, we'll go out for a walk.
 A permitted  B permitting  C permits  D for permitting
  答案B. 本题中没有连词,它不是复合句,也不是并列句。 句中使用了逗号,且we 小写,可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或with的复合结构。据此判断,本句中使用的是独立结构,其结构为:名词+分词。 由于permit在这里翻译为'天气允许',表主动,应用现在分词,故选B。
  如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。

不能“以貌取意”的常见句型例析

1.This is the last thing I would ever want to do. 
     这是我最不愿做的一件事情。 
     【析】“the last +to do;the last +定语从句”中的last的意思为“least willing/likely”,译为“最不愿意;最不可能”。 
     He's the last man I want to see.他是我最不想见的人。 
     He is the last person to tell a lie.他是最不可能撒谎的人。 
     She's the last woman I want to sit next to at dinner.她是我在宴会上最不愿与之挨着坐的女人。 
2.One can't be too honest. 
     人越老实越好。 
     【析】句中“cannot...too...”意为“无论怎样……也不过分”或“越……越好”。该句型中的not可以换成hardly,never或scarcely;too可以换成 over或enough等,意思不变。
     You cannot be too careful.You cannot be over careful.=You cannot be careful enough.你越仔细越好。 
     A man can never have too many friends.朋友越多越好。 
3.It's a wise man that never makes mistakes. 
     无论多么聪明的人,也难免犯错误。 
     【析】“It is a +形容词+名词+that...”结构是一个特殊的习惯用法,意思是“无论怎样的……也不……”。真正的句子意思与字面意思相反,它具有含蓄的让步意味,切不可望文生义、译成强调句型。 
     It's a long lane that has no turning.无论怎样长的巷子也有转弯处。(引申意义为:耐心等待终会时来运转。) 
     It's a good horse that never stumbles.再好的马也有失前蹄的时候。(引申意义为:金无足赤,人无完人。) 
4I'm too anxious to know the result. 
     我极想知道结果。 
     【析】英语中“too...to...”结构表示“太……以致不”的意思。例如:The star is too small to see.但是,如果too后形容词表示主语的状态、心理活动、情感态度(常见的有glad,easy,ready,anxious,eager, willing,happy等),并与其后的不定式构成固定搭配,这时too含有肯定意义,表示“very,extremely”的意思。 
     They are too anxious to leave.他们急于离去。 
     Mr.Smith was too eager to see her.史密斯先生极想见到她。 
5.It's three years since he was a teacher. 
     他不当教师已经三年了。 
     【析】在“It is some time since +主语+谓语+其它成分。”这一结构中,如果从句谓语动词是非延续性动词,那么时间的计算就从该动作的发生开始算起。
     It‘s three years since he joined the army.他参军已经三年了。
     如果从句谓语动词是延续性动词,时间就要从该动作的结束算起。
     It's many years since they lived here.他们不在这儿住已经好多年了。 
6.All that glitters is not gold. 
     闪光的东西不一定都是金子。 
     【析】在句中当不定代词all,both,every及 every的复合词,副词always,often,entirely与 not一起使用时,表示部分否定,意思是“并非都是”,“不是每个人都”等。 
     I don't remember all these formulas.这些公式我并非全都记得。 
     Every man cannot do it.并非每个人都能做这个。 
     I don't entirely agree with you.我并不完全同意你的看法。 
     注意:当all,both,every等词和带im-,in-,un-,dis-等表示否定意义的前缀的词连用时,表示全部否定的意义。
     All your answers are incorrect.你所有的答案都不正确。
     表示全部否定时,我们常使用no,not,nobody,nothing,never,nowhere,neither等词。
     None of the teachers smoke.这些老师都不抽烟。 
7.The mountain is not valuable because it is high. 
     山并不因为高而具有价值。(山不在高) 
     【析】含有原因状语从句的主从复合句,形式上虽然否定主句的谓语,然而意义上则是否定该原因状语,译为“并不因为……而……”。 
     You cannot walk away just because someone tells you he doesn't want to buy.你不能仅仅因为他告诉你不买就走开。 
     Galileo was not ready to accept it just because Aristotle had said so.伽利略并不只是因为亚里斯多德说过某事如何如何,就轻易相信它。 
8.I didn't pretend to understand what he said. 
     我假装没懂他说的话。 
     【析】常用动词pretend,happen的否定形式有两种:既可以否定pretend,也可以否定其后的不定式,其意义不变。 
     I didn't happen to be there.=I happened not to be there.我恰巧不在那儿。 
     They didn't pretend to see me when I went by.=They pretended not to see me when I went by.当我经过的时候,他们假装没有看见我。 
9Let's have a rest under the big tree. It's nice and cool here. 
     让我们在大树下歇会吧。这儿很凉快。 
     【析】nice and,good and都表示“很,非常,完全”的意思。and前的形容词实质上起副词作用,修饰后边的形容词,表示强调。 
     I am good and ready.我都准备好了。 
     It is good and cold in the morning.早上非常冷。


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